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ArrayList源码解读


ArrayList是List接口的可变大小的数组实现。实现了所有list的操作,同时允许所有元素,包括null。除此之外,ArrayList提供方法去操作储存list的数组的大小。(ArrayList可以大致相当于Vector,除了它不是线程同步的)

其中size(), isEmpty(), get(), set(), iterator(), listIterator()的运行时间都为常数级。 add()方法可以在分期摊还的常数时间(amortized constant time)内完成,即添加n个元素时间复杂度为O(n)。 其他所有方法的运行时间都为线性(大约来说)。常数因子比LinkedList要小。

每一个ArrayList实例都有一个容量,这个容量是list中用来存放元素的数组的大小。容量至少和元素个数一样大。当向ArrayList添加元素时,容量会自动扩大。这个扩容的过程并不会影响添加一个元素可以在分期摊还的常数时间内完成的事实。

一个程序可以在添加大量的元素之前使用ensureCapacity()方法增加ArrayList的容量。这可以避免多余的扩容。

需要注意的是,ArrayList不是线程同步的。如果有多个线程同时访问一个ArrayList实例,并且至少一个线程对list进行了结构上的修改,那么它必须保持外部同步。。(结构上的修改是指任何添加或删除一个或多个元素的操作,或者显式调整底层数组的大小;仅仅设置元素的值不是结构上的修改。)这一般通过对自然封装该list的对象进行同步操作来完成。

如果不存在这样的对象,则应该使用
Collections.synchronizedList()方法将该list“包装”起来。这最好在创建时完成,以防止意外对list进行不同步的访问:

List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList(...));
                

此类的iterator()listIterator()方法返回的迭代器是快速失败(fail-fast)的:在创建迭代器之后,除非通过迭代器自身的remove()add()方法从结构上对list进行修改,否则在任何时间以任何方式对list进行修改(即modCount值发生变化),迭代器都会抛出ConcurrentModificationException异常。因此,面对并发的修改,迭代器很快就会完全失败(fail),而不是冒着在将来某个不确定时间发生任意不确定行为的风险。

注意,迭代器的快速失败行为无法得到保证,因为一般来说,不可能对是否出现不同步并发修改做出任何硬性保证。快速失败迭代器会尽最大努力抛出ConcurrentModificationException异常。因此,为提高这类迭代器的正确性而编写一个依赖于此异常的程序是错误的做法:迭代器的快速失败行为应该仅用于检测 bug。









ArrayList继承于AbstractList,实现了List, RandomAccess(支持快速随机访问), Cloneable(可克隆), java.io.Serializable(可序列化)接口

serialVersionUID:序列化版本号,用来验证版本一致性的



DEFAULT_CAPACITY:默认的初始容量


EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA:空ArrayList实例共享的空数组


elementData:存放ArrayList元素的数组。ArrayList的容量就是这个数组的大小。任何空的ArrayList的空数组(elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)在添加第一个元素时会扩容到默认初始容量(DEFAULT_CAPACITY)
被关键字 transient修饰表示不参与序列化过程



size:ArrayList的大小(即包含元素的个数)





ArrayList(int initialCapacity):构造一个具有指定初始容量的空list。
如果指定的初始容量为负,则抛出IllegalArgumentException异常
否则便将elementData指向一个长度为initialCapacity的Object空数组



ArrayList():构造一个空list




ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c):构造一个包含指定collection的元素的list,这些元素是按照该collection的迭代器返回它们的顺序排列的。
如果cnull则抛出NullPointerException异常

elementData指向一个包含c中所有元素的新数组
将ArrayList容量设为此时elementData的长度
如果c.toArray()所得的数组元素不属于Object类,则复制一次数组,使所得数组元素属于Object



trimToSize():将此ArrayList实例的容量调整为list的当前大小。程序可以使用此方法来最小化ArrayList实例的空间。

操作次数modCount加1
如果元素个数小于数组长度
则将所有元素复制到一个更小的数组(长度与元素个数相同)




ensureCapacity(int minCapacity):如有必要,增加此 ArrayList 实例的容量,确保它至少可以容纳由最小容量参数minCapacity指定的数量的元素。

如果elementData为空,则最小扩张量minExpand为0,否则为DEFAULT_CAPACITY



如果最小容量参数大于最小扩张量,则调用确保容量的内部方法ensureCapacityInternal


ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity):确保容量的内部方法,区别于外部可调用的ensureCapacity方法
如果elementData为空,则设置最小容量为默认容量与期望的最小容量的最大值
然后调用ensureExplicitCapacity方法


ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity):判断是否要进行扩容
操作次数modCount加1

如果最小容量超出了数组可容纳的长度,对数组进行扩容,调用grow方法











grow(int minCapacity):增加容量以确保它至少可以容纳由最小容量参数minCapacity指定的数量的元素

新容量为原数组长度的1.5倍
如果新容量小于需要的最小容量,则新容量为最小容量
判断新容量是否大于数组最大可分配容量

将原来数组的元素复制到长度为newCapacity的新数组中去, elementData指向新数组











size():返回此list中的元素数。






isEmpty():如果此list中没有元素,则返回true





contains(Object o):如果此list中包含指定的元素,则返回true。更确切地讲,当且仅当此list包含至少一个满足
o==null ? e==null : o.equals(e)的元素e时,则返回true

调用indexOf方法判断是否存在索引



indexOf(Object o):返回此list中首次出现的指定元素的索引,或如果此list不包含元素,则返回-1。更确切地讲,返回满足o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))的最低索引i ,如果不存在此类索引,则返回-1


索引从0开始,分o是否为null两种情况,对elementData进行遍历,如果找到则返回当前索引。


找不到则返回-1




lastIndexOf(Object o):返回此list中最后一次出现的指定元素的索引,或如果此list不包含元素,则返回-1。更确切地讲,返回满足o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))的最高索引i ,如果不存在此类索引,则返回-1

实现方法为indexOf的倒序版
索引从size-1开始,分o是否为null两种情况,对elementData进行遍历,如果找到则返回当前索引。


找不到则返回-1




clone():返回此 ArrayList 实例的浅复制。(不复制这些元素对象,只复制引用)
调用父类的clone()方法对当前ArrayList实例进行浅复制。

elementData复制一份给新实例velementData
然后将v操作次数modCount初始化为0
最后返回v
如果复制过程中出现了CloneNotSupportedException异常(通常不应该发生)
则抛出内部错误InternalError





toArray():按适当顺序(从第一个到最后一个元素)返回包含此list中所有元素的数组。
由于此list不维护对返回数组的任何引用,因而它将是“安全的”。(换句话说,此方法必须分配一个新的数组)。因此,调用者可以自由地修改返回的数组。
此方法担当基于数组的API和基于collection的API之间的桥梁。


















toArray(T[] a):按适当顺序(从第一个到最后一个元素)返回包含此list中所有元素的数组;返回数组的运行时类型是指定数组的运行时类型。

如果指定的数组能容纳list,则将数组从起始位置依次覆盖为该list元素。否则,将分配一个具有指定数组的运行时类型和此list大小的新数组。
如果指定的数组能容纳队列,并有剩余的空间(即数组的元素比队列多),那么会将数组中紧接collection尾部的元素设置为null。(仅在调用者知道list中不包含任何null元素时才能用此方法确定list长度)。


elementData(int index):位置访问方法
通过[]操作符访问index对应的元素





get(int index):返回此list中指定位置index上的元素。

首先会对index调用rangeCheck方法进行范围。
然后调用elementData方法返回对应位置上的元素







set(int index, E element):用指定的元素element替代此list中指定位置index上的元素。

首先会对index调用rangeCheck方法进行范围。
然后保存指定位置index上的旧元素,然后用element替换elementData中的元素
最后返回旧元素oldValue



add(E e):将指定的元素e添加到此list的尾部。

首先会调用ensureCapacityInternal方法进行容量检查,保证容量可以放下元素,此时修改次数modCount会增加1
之后将e放入elementData末尾,同时size1




add(int index, E element):将指定的元素element插入此list中的指定位置index。以前位于该位置的元素(如果有)以及所有后续元素向右移动(将其索引加1)。

首先对index进行范围检查,如果超出数组范围,则抛出IndexOutOfBoundsException异常
之后调用ensureCapacityInternal方法进行容量检查,保证容量可以放下元素,此时修改次数modCount会增加1
将原数组中从index位置开始到数组末尾的元素索引加1,具体实现为复制数组
将指定元素放到index处,同时size1





remove(int index):移除此列表中指定位置上的元素。所有后续元素向左移动(将其索引减1)。

首先对index进行范围检查,如果超出数组范围,则抛出IndexOutOfBoundsException异常
修改次数modCount增加1,然后保存指定位置index上的旧元素。
将原数组中所有后续元素索引减1,具体实现为复制数组
之后将末尾的元素置为null,同时size1

最后返回旧元素oldValue








remove(Object o):移除此列表中首次出现的指定元素(如果存在)。如果列表不包含此元素,则list不做改动。更确切地讲,移除满足o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i))的最低索引的元素(如果存在此类元素)。如果列表中包含指定的元素,则返回true(或者等同于这种情况:如果list由于调用方法而发生更改,则返回true)。

索引从0开始,分o是否为null两种情况,对elementData进行遍历,如果找到则调用fastRemove方法(remove无范围检查版)移除元素。之后返回true



如果找不到返回false





fastRemove(int index):无范围检查、无返回值的remove私有方法

实现方法同remove(int index)






clear():移除此列表中的所有元素。

修改次数增加1
elementData中的所有元素置为null
然后size值置为0







addAll(Collection<? extends E> c):按照指定collectionc的迭代器所返回的元素顺序,将c中的所有元素添加到此list的尾部。如果正在进行此操作时修改c,那么此操作的行为是不确定的。

首先调用c的toArray方法将所有元素存到数组a中,同时得到元素个数numNew
之后会调用ensureCapacityInternal方法进行容量检查,保证容量可以放下元素,此时修改次数modCount会增加1
然后将a中元素复制到elementData末尾,同时size加上numNew
如果numNew不为0则返回true






addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c):从指定的位置index开始,将指定collectionc中的所有元素插入到此list中。当前位于该位置的元素(如果有)以及所有后续元素向右移动(增加其索引)。新元素将按照c的迭代器所返回的元素顺序出现在list中。

首先对index进行范围检查,如果超出数组范围,则抛出IndexOutOfBoundsException异常
之后调用ctoArray方法将所有元素存到数组a中,同时得到元素个数numNew
接着会调用ensureCapacityInternal方法进行容量检查,保证容量可以放下元素,此时修改次数modCount会增加1
通过size - index可算出移动距离numMoved,之后位于index的元素(如果有)以及所有后续元素索引加上numMoved,具体实现为复制数组
再将a中元素按顺序复制到index处,同时size加上numNew
如果numNew不为0则返回true






removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex):移除列表中索引在fromIndex(包括)和toIndex(不包括)之间的所有元素。所有后续元素向左移动(减小其索引)。此调用将列表缩短了toIndex - fromIndex个元素。(如果toIndex==fromIndex,则此操作无效。)

修改次数modCount增加1
通过size - index可算出移动距离numMoved
之后位于toIndex的元素以及所有后续元素索引减numMoved,具体实现为复制数组

然后将之前位置上的元素置为null,同时将size修改为当前元素个数size - (toIndex-fromIndex)




rangeCheck(int index):检查指定位置index是否在list范围内,如果不在则抛出IndexOutOfBoundsException异常
此方法并不会检查index是否为负:如果index为负,在访问数组时会立即抛出ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException异常

检查index是否小于size,如果否则抛出异常


rangeCheckForAdd(int index):使用在add

dAll方法中的rangeCheck
如果index大于size或者index为负,则抛出IndexOutOfBoundsException异常



outOfBoundsMsg(int index):构建IndexOutOfBoundsException异常的细节
返回indexsize信息










removeAll(Collection<?> c):移除所有同时出现在此list和Collectionc中的元素

调用java.util.Objects类的静态方法requireNonNull检查c是否为null,如果是则抛出NullPointerException异常
之后调用batchRemove方法进行批量移除,设置参数complementfalse







retainAll(Collection<?> c):保留所有同时出现在此list和Collectionc中的元素,其他元素全部移除。即移除所有没有出现在c中的元素。

调用java.util.Objects类的静态方法requireNonNull检查c是否为null,如果是则抛出NullPointerException异常
之后调用batchRemove方法进行批量移除,设置参数complementtrue



batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement):按照参数对list中的元素进行批量移除:
如果complementfalse,移除所有同时出现在此list和Collectionc中的元素
如果complementtrue,移除所有没有出现在c中的元素

创建两个索引r表示当前已经遍历的元素个数,w表示保留的元素个数
创建一个标记modified用来记录list是否被修改

遍历elementData,将满足条件的元素依次放在elementData头部

保持与AbstractCollection的兼容性,如果因c.contains()遇到null抛出异常而终止遍历,则将剩下未筛选的元素放在通过筛选元素的后面。

w加上未筛选的元素个数size - r

如果此时w != size,则表示该方法对list进行了修改
然后将因为移动元素而废弃的位置置为null
修改次数modCount加上移除的元素个数size - w
同时修改size为留下的元素个数w
修改标记modified置为true

返回modified,表示方法是否修改了list


package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Predicate;
import java.util.function.UnaryOperator;

/**
 * 
 * Resizable-array implementation of the <tt>List</tt> interface.  Implements
 * all optional list operations, and permits all elements, including
 * <tt>null</tt>.  In addition to implementing the <tt>List</tt> interface,
 * this class provides methods to manipulate the size of the array that is
 * used internally to store the list.  (This class is roughly equivalent to
 * <tt>Vector</tt>, except that it is unsynchronized.)
 * 
 * <p>The <tt>size</tt>, <tt>isEmpty</tt>, <tt>get</tt>, <tt>set</tt>,
 * <tt>iterator</tt>, and <tt>listIterator</tt> operations run in constant
 * time.  The <tt>add</tt> operation runs in <i>amortized constant time</i>,
 * that is, adding n elements requires O(n) time.  All of the other operations
 * run in linear time (roughly speaking).  The constant factor is low compared
 * to that for the <tt>LinkedList</tt> implementation.
 * 
 * <p>Each <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance has a <i>capacity</i>.  The capacity is
 * the size of the array used to store the elements in the list.  It is always
 * at least as large as the list size.  As elements are added to an ArrayList,
 * its capacity grows automatically.  The details of the growth policy are not
 * specified beyond the fact that adding an element has constant amortized
 * time cost.
 *
 * <p>An application can increase the capacity of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
 * before adding a large number of elements using the <tt>ensureCapacity</tt>
 * operation.  This may reduce the amount of incremental reallocation.
 *
 * <p><strong>Note that this implementation is not synchronized.</strong>
 * If multiple threads access an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance concurrently,
 * and at least one of the threads modifies the list structurally, it
 * <i>must</i> be synchronized externally.  (A structural modification is
 * any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements, or explicitly
 * resizes the backing array; merely setting the value of an element is not
 * a structural modification.)  This is typically accomplished by
 * synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the list.
 *
 * If no such object exists, the list should be "wrapped" using the
 * {@link Collections#synchronizedList Collections.synchronizedList}
 * method.  This is best done at creation time, to prevent accidental
 * unsynchronized access to the list:<pre>
 *   List list = Collections.synchronizedList(new ArrayList(...));</pre>
 *
 * <p><a name="fail-fast">
 * The iterators returned by this class's {@link #iterator() iterator} and
 * {@link #listIterator(int) listIterator} methods are <em>fail-fast</em>:</a>
 * if the list is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is
 * created, in any way except through the iterator's own
 * {@link ListIterator#remove() remove} or
 * {@link ListIterator#add(Object) add} methods, the iterator will throw a
 * {@link ConcurrentModificationException}.  Thus, in the face of
 * concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather
 * than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined
 * time in the future.
 *
 * <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
 * as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
 * presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification.  Fail-fast iterators
 * throw {@code ConcurrentModificationException} on a best-effort basis.
 * Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
 * exception for its correctness:  <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
 * should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
 *
 * <p>This class is a member of the
 * <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
 * Java Collections Framework</a>.
 *
 * @author  Josh Bloch
 * @author  Neal Gafter
 * @see     Collection
 * @see     List
 * @see     LinkedList
 * @see     Vector
 * @since   1.2
 */

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
        implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

    /**
     * Default initial capacity.
     */
    private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

    /**
     * Shared empty array instance used for empty instances.
     */
    private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

    /**
     * The array buffer into which the elements of the ArrayList are stored.
     * The capacity of the ArrayList is the length of this array buffer. Any
     * empty ArrayList with elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA will be expanded to
     * DEFAULT_CAPACITY when the first element is added.
     */
    transient Object[] elementData; // non-private to simplify nested class access

    /**
     * The size of the ArrayList (the number of elements it contains).
     *
     * @serial
     */
    private int size;

    /**
     * Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity  the initial capacity of the list
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
     *         is negative
     */
    public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {
        super();
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
                                               initialCapacity);
        this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
    }

    /**
     * Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
     */
    public ArrayList() {
        super();
        this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified
     * collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
     * iterator.
     *
     * @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        elementData = c.toArray();
        size = elementData.length;
        // c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)
        if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)
            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);
    }

    /**
     * Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the
     * list's current size.  An application can use this operation to minimize
     * the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.
     */
    public void trimToSize() {
        modCount++;
        if (size < elementData.length) {
            elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if
     * necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements
     * specified by the minimum capacity argument.
     * 
     * @param   minCapacity   the desired minimum capacity
     */
    public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
        int minExpand = (elementData != EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)
            // any size if real element table
            ? 0
            // larger than default for empty table. It's already supposed to be
            // at default size.
            : DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

        if (minCapacity > minExpand) {
            ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
        }
    }
    


    private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {

        if (elementData == EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {
            minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);
        }

        ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
    }

    private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {

        modCount++;

        // overflow-conscious code
        if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
            grow(minCapacity);
    }

    /**
     * The maximum size of array to allocate.
     * Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
     * Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
     * OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
     */
    private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

    /**
     * Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the
     * number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.
     *
     * @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
     */
    private void grow(int minCapacity) {
        // overflow-conscious code
        int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
        int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
        if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
            newCapacity = minCapacity;
        if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
            newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
        // minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:
        
        elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
    }

    private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
        if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
            throw new OutOfMemoryError();
        return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
            Integer.MAX_VALUE :
            MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of elements in this list.
     *
     * @return the number of elements in this list
     */
    public int size() {
        return size;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element.
     * More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this list contains
     * at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
     *
     * @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element
     */
    public boolean contains(Object o) {
        return indexOf(o) >= 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
     * in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
     * More formally, returns the lowest index <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
     * or -1 if there is no such index.
     */
    public int indexOf(Object o) {
        if (o == null) {
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
                if (elementData[i]==null)
                    return i;
        } else {
            for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
                    return i;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
     * in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
     * More formally, returns the highest index <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
     * or -1 if there is no such index.
     */
    public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
        if (o == null) {
            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
                if (elementData[i]==null)
                    return i;
        } else {
            for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
                if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
                    return i;
        }
        return -1;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.  (The
     * elements themselves are not copied.)
     *
     * @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
     */
    public Object clone() {
        try {
            ArrayList<?> v = (ArrayList<?>) super.clone();
            v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
            v.modCount = 0;
            return v;
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            // this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
            throw new InternalError(e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
     * in proper sequence (from first to last element).
     *
     * <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
     * maintained by this list.  (In other words, this method must allocate
     * a new array).  The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
     *
     * <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
     * APIs.
     *
     * @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in
     *         proper sequence
     */
    public Object[] toArray() {
        return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in proper
     * sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of the returned
     * array is that of the specified array.  If the list fits in the
     * specified array, it is returned therein.  Otherwise, a new array is
     * allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of
     * this list.
     *
     * <p>If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare
     * (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in
     * the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to
     * <tt>null</tt>.  (This is useful in determining the length of the
     * list <i>only</i> if the caller knows that the list does not contain
     * any null elements.)
     *
     * @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
     *          be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
     *          same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
     * @return an array containing the elements of the list
     * @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
     *         is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
     *         this list
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
        if (a.length < size)
            // Make a new array of a's runtime type, but my contents:
            return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, a.getClass());
        System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, size);
        if (a.length > size)
            a[size] = null;
        return a;
    }

    // Positional Access Operations

    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    E elementData(int index) {
        return (E) elementData[index];
    }

    /**
     * Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
     *
     * @param  index index of the element to return
     * @return the element at the specified position in this list
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E get(int index) {
        rangeCheck(index);

        return elementData(index);
    }

    /**
     * Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with
     * the specified element.
     *
     * @param index index of the element to replace
     * @param element element to be stored at the specified position
     * @return the element previously at the specified position
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E set(int index, E element) {
        rangeCheck(index);

        E oldValue = elementData(index);
        elementData[index] = element;
        return oldValue;
    }

    /**
     * Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
     *
     * @param e element to be appended to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
     */
    public boolean add(E e) {
        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!!
        elementData[size++] = e;
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this
     * list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and
     * any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
     * 
     * @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted
     * @param element element to be inserted
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public void add(int index, E element) {
        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

        ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1);  // Increments modCount!!
        System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1,
                         size - index);
        elementData[index] = element;
        size++;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
     * Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
     * indices).
     *
     * @param index the index of the element to be removed
     * @return the element that was removed from the list
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public E remove(int index) {
        rangeCheck(index);

        modCount++;
        E oldValue = elementData(index);

        int numMoved = size - index - 1;
        if (numMoved > 0)
            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
                             numMoved);
        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

        return oldValue;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
     * if it is present.  If the list does not contain the element, it is
     * unchanged.  More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
     * <tt>i</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
     * (if such an element exists).  Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list
     * contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
     * changed as a result of the call).
     *
     * @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element
     */
    public boolean remove(Object o) {
        if (o == null) {
            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
                if (elementData[index] == null) {
                    fastRemove(index);
                    return true;
                }
        } else {
            for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
                if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {
                    fastRemove(index);
                    return true;
                }
        }
        return false;
    }

    /*
     * Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not
     * return the value removed.
     */
    private void fastRemove(int index) {
        modCount++;
        int numMoved = size - index - 1;
        if (numMoved > 0)
            System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
                             numMoved);
        elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the elements from this list.  The list will
     * be empty after this call returns.
     */
    public void clear() {
        modCount++;

        // clear to let GC do its work
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
            elementData[i] = null;

        size = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of
     * this list, in the order that they are returned by the
     * specified collection's Iterator.  The behavior of this operation is
     * undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation
     * is in progress.  (This implies that the behavior of this call is
     * undefined if the specified collection is this list, and this
     * list is nonempty.)
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        Object[] a = c.toArray();
        int numNew = a.length;
        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount
        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);
        size += numNew;
        return numNew != 0;
    }

    /**
     * Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this
     * list, starting at the specified position.  Shifts the element
     * currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to
     * the right (increases their indices).  The new elements will appear
     * in the list in the order that they are returned by the
     * specified collection's iterator.
     *
     * @param index index at which to insert the first element from the
     *              specified collection
     * @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
        rangeCheckForAdd(index);

        Object[] a = c.toArray();
        int numNew = a.length;
        ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew);  // Increments modCount

        int numMoved = size - index;
        if (numMoved > 0)
            System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
                             numMoved);

        System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
        size += numNew;
        return numNew != 0;
    }

    /**
     * Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between
     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
     * Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).
     * This call shortens the list by {@code (toIndex - fromIndex)} elements.
     * (If {@code toIndex==fromIndex}, this operation has no effect.)
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex} or
     *         {@code toIndex} is out of range
     *         ({@code fromIndex < 0 ||
     *          fromIndex >= size() ||
     *          toIndex > size() ||
     *          toIndex < fromIndex})
     */
    protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
        modCount++;
        int numMoved = size - toIndex;
        System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,
                         numMoved);

        // clear to let GC do its work
        int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);
        for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {
            elementData[i] = null;
        }
        size = newSize;
    }

    /**
     * Checks if the given index is in range.  If not, throws an appropriate
     * runtime exception.  This method does *not* check if the index is
     * negative: It is always used immediately prior to an array access,
     * which throws an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if index is negative.
     */
    private void rangeCheck(int index) {
        if (index >= size)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
    }

    /**
     * A version of rangeCheck used by add and addAll.
     */
    private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
        if (index > size || index < 0)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
    }

    /**
     * Constructs an IndexOutOfBoundsException detail message.
     * Of the many possible refactorings of the error handling code,
     * this "outlining" performs best with both server and client VMs.
     */
    private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
        return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+size;
    }

    /**
     * Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in the
     * specified collection.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list
     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
     *         is incompatible with the specified collection
     * (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     * @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
     *         specified collection does not permit null elements
     * (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
     *         or if the specified collection is null
     * @see Collection#contains(Object)
     */
    public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(c);
        return batchRemove(c, false);
    }

    /**
     * Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the
     * specified collection.  In other words, removes from this list all
     * of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.
     *
     * @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list
     * @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
     * @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
     *         is incompatible with the specified collection
     * (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
     * @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
     *         specified collection does not permit null elements
     * (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
     *         or if the specified collection is null
     * @see Collection#contains(Object)
     */
    public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(c);
        return batchRemove(c, true);
    }













    private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {
        final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;
        int r = 0, w = 0;
        boolean modified = false;
        try {
            for (; r < size; r++)
                if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)
                    elementData[w++] = elementData[r];
        } finally {
            // Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,
            // even if c.contains() throws.
            if (r != size) {
                System.arraycopy(elementData, r,
                                 elementData, w,
                                 size - r);
                w += size - r;
            }
            if (w != size) {
                // clear to let GC do its work
                for (int i = w; i < size; i++)
                    elementData[i] = null;
                modCount += size - w;
                size = w;
                modified = true;
            }
        }
        return modified;
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to a stream (that
     * is, serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The length of the array backing the <tt>ArrayList</tt>
     *             instance is emitted (int), followed by all of its elements
     *             (each an <tt>Object</tt>) in the proper order.
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException{
        // Write out element count, and any hidden stuff
        int expectedModCount = modCount;
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        // Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()
        s.writeInt(size);

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.
        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
            s.writeObject(elementData[i]);
        }

        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance from a stream (that is,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
        throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
        elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

        // Read in size, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultReadObject();

        // Read in capacity
        s.readInt(); // ignored

        if (size > 0) {
            // be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity
            ensureCapacityInternal(size);

            Object[] a = elementData;
            // Read in all elements in the proper order.
            for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
                a[i] = s.readObject();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
     * sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
     * The specified index indicates the first element that would be
     * returned by an initial call to {@link ListIterator#next next}.
     * An initial call to {@link ListIterator#previous previous} would
     * return the element with the specified index minus one.
     *
     * <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
        if (index < 0 || index > size)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);
        return new ListItr(index);
    }

    /**
     * Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
     * sequence).
     *
     * <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
     *
     * @see #listIterator(int)
     */
    public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {
        return new ListItr(0);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.
     *
     * <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
     *
     * @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence
     */
    public Iterator<E> iterator() {
        return new Itr();
    }

    /**
     * An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr
     */
    private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {
        int cursor;       // index of next element to return
        int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such
        int expectedModCount = modCount;

        public boolean hasNext() {
            return cursor != size;
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public E next() {
            checkForComodification();
            int i = cursor;
            if (i >= size)
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
            if (i >= elementData.length)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            cursor = i + 1;
            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
        }

        public void remove() {
            if (lastRet < 0)
                throw new IllegalStateException();
            checkForComodification();

            try {
                ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);
                cursor = lastRet;
                lastRet = -1;
                expectedModCount = modCount;
            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }

        @Override
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
            Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
            final int size = ArrayList.this.size;
            int i = cursor;
            if (i >= size) {
                return;
            }
            final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
            if (i >= elementData.length) {
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
            while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
                consumer.accept((E) elementData[i++]);
            }
            // update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
            cursor = i;
            lastRet = i - 1;
            checkForComodification();
        }

        final void checkForComodification() {
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
    }

    /**
     * An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr
     */
    private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {
        ListItr(int index) {
            super();
            cursor = index;
        }

        public boolean hasPrevious() {
            return cursor != 0;
        }

        public int nextIndex() {
            return cursor;
        }

        public int previousIndex() {
            return cursor - 1;
        }

        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        public E previous() {
            checkForComodification();
            int i = cursor - 1;
            if (i < 0)
                throw new NoSuchElementException();
            Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
            if (i >= elementData.length)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            cursor = i;
            return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
        }

        public void set(E e) {
            if (lastRet < 0)
                throw new IllegalStateException();
            checkForComodification();

            try {
                ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);
            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }

        public void add(E e) {
            checkForComodification();

            try {
                int i = cursor;
                ArrayList.this.add(i, e);
                cursor = i + 1;
                lastRet = -1;
                expectedModCount = modCount;
            } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a view of the portion of this list between the specified
     * {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.  (If
     * {@code fromIndex} and {@code toIndex} are equal, the returned list is
     * empty.)  The returned list is backed by this list, so non-structural
     * changes in the returned list are reflected in this list, and vice-versa.
     * The returned list supports all of the optional list operations.
     *
     * <p>This method eliminates the need for explicit range operations (of
     * the sort that commonly exist for arrays).  Any operation that expects
     * a list can be used as a range operation by passing a subList view
     * instead of a whole list.  For example, the following idiom
     * removes a range of elements from a list:
     * <pre>
     *      list.subList(from, to).clear();
     * </pre>
     * Similar idioms may be constructed for {@link #indexOf(Object)} and
     * {@link #lastIndexOf(Object)}, and all of the algorithms in the
     * {@link Collections} class can be applied to a subList.
     *
     * <p>The semantics of the list returned by this method become undefined if
     * the backing list (i.e., this list) is <i>structurally modified</i> in
     * any way other than via the returned list.  (Structural modifications are
     * those that change the size of this list, or otherwise perturb it in such
     * a fashion that iterations in progress may yield incorrect results.)
     *
     * @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException {@inheritDoc}
     */
    public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
        subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
        return new SubList(this, 0, fromIndex, toIndex);
    }

    static void subListRangeCheck(int fromIndex, int toIndex, int size) {
        if (fromIndex < 0)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("fromIndex = " + fromIndex);
        if (toIndex > size)
            throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("toIndex = " + toIndex);
        if (fromIndex > toIndex)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("fromIndex(" + fromIndex +
                                               ") > toIndex(" + toIndex + ")");
    }

    private class SubList extends AbstractList<E> implements RandomAccess {
        private final AbstractList<E> parent;
        private final int parentOffset;
        private final int offset;
        int size;

        SubList(AbstractList<E> parent,
                int offset, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
            this.parent = parent;
            this.parentOffset = fromIndex;
            this.offset = offset + fromIndex;
            this.size = toIndex - fromIndex;
            this.modCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
        }

        public E set(int index, E e) {
            rangeCheck(index);
            checkForComodification();
            E oldValue = ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
            ArrayList.this.elementData[offset + index] = e;
            return oldValue;
        }

        public E get(int index) {
            rangeCheck(index);
            checkForComodification();
            return ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
        }

        public int size() {
            checkForComodification();
            return this.size;
        }

        public void add(int index, E e) {
            rangeCheckForAdd(index);
            checkForComodification();
            parent.add(parentOffset + index, e);
            this.modCount = parent.modCount;
            this.size++;
        }

        public E remove(int index) {
            rangeCheck(index);
            checkForComodification();
            E result = parent.remove(parentOffset + index);
            this.modCount = parent.modCount;
            this.size--;
            return result;
        }

        protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
            checkForComodification();
            parent.removeRange(parentOffset + fromIndex,
                               parentOffset + toIndex);
            this.modCount = parent.modCount;
            this.size -= toIndex - fromIndex;
        }

        public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
            return addAll(this.size, c);
        }

        public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
            rangeCheckForAdd(index);
            int cSize = c.size();
            if (cSize==0)
                return false;

            checkForComodification();
            parent.addAll(parentOffset + index, c);
            this.modCount = parent.modCount;
            this.size += cSize;
            return true;
        }

        public Iterator<E> iterator() {
            return listIterator();
        }

        public ListIterator<E> listIterator(final int index) {
            checkForComodification();
            rangeCheckForAdd(index);
            final int offset = this.offset;

            return new ListIterator<E>() {
                int cursor = index;
                int lastRet = -1;
                int expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;

                public boolean hasNext() {
                    return cursor != SubList.this.size;
                }

                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                public E next() {
                    checkForComodification();
                    int i = cursor;
                    if (i >= SubList.this.size)
                        throw new NoSuchElementException();
                    Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
                    if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    cursor = i + 1;
                    return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
                }

                public boolean hasPrevious() {
                    return cursor != 0;
                }

                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                public E previous() {
                    checkForComodification();
                    int i = cursor - 1;
                    if (i < 0)
                        throw new NoSuchElementException();
                    Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
                    if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    cursor = i;
                    return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
                }

                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
                    Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
                    final int size = SubList.this.size;
                    int i = cursor;
                    if (i >= size) {
                        return;
                    }
                    final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
                    if (offset + i >= elementData.length) {
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    }
                    while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
                        consumer.accept((E) elementData[offset + (i++)]);
                    }
                    // update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
                    lastRet = cursor = i;
                    checkForComodification();
                }

                public int nextIndex() {
                    return cursor;
                }

                public int previousIndex() {
                    return cursor - 1;
                }

                public void remove() {
                    if (lastRet < 0)
                        throw new IllegalStateException();
                    checkForComodification();

                    try {
                        SubList.this.remove(lastRet);
                        cursor = lastRet;
                        lastRet = -1;
                        expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
                    } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    }
                }

                public void set(E e) {
                    if (lastRet < 0)
                        throw new IllegalStateException();
                    checkForComodification();

                    try {
                        ArrayList.this.set(offset + lastRet, e);
                    } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    }
                }

                public void add(E e) {
                    checkForComodification();

                    try {
                        int i = cursor;
                        SubList.this.add(i, e);
                        cursor = i + 1;
                        lastRet = -1;
                        expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
                    } catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                    }
                }

                final void checkForComodification() {
                    if (expectedModCount != ArrayList.this.modCount)
                        throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                }
            };
        }

        public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
            subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
            return new SubList(this, offset, fromIndex, toIndex);
        }

        private void rangeCheck(int index) {
            if (index < 0 || index >= this.size)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
        }

        private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
            if (index < 0 || index > this.size)
                throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
        }

        private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
            return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+this.size;
        }

        private void checkForComodification() {
            if (ArrayList.this.modCount != this.modCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }

        public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
            checkForComodification();
            return new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(ArrayList.this, offset,
                                               offset + this.size, this.modCount);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(action);
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
        final int size = this.size;
        for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
            action.accept(elementData[i]);
        }
        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
     * and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
     * list.
     *
     * <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED},
     * {@link Spliterator#SUBSIZED}, and {@link Spliterator#ORDERED}.
     * Overriding implementations should document the reporting of additional
     * characteristic values.
     *
     * @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this list
     * @since 1.8
     */
    @Override
    public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
        return new ArrayListSpliterator<>(this, 0, -1, 0);
    }

    /** Index-based split-by-two, lazily initialized Spliterator */
    static final class ArrayListSpliterator<E> implements Spliterator<E> {

        /*
         * If ArrayLists were immutable, or structurally immutable (no
         * adds, removes, etc), we could implement their spliterators
         * with Arrays.spliterator. Instead we detect as much
         * interference during traversal as practical without
         * sacrificing much performance. We rely primarily on
         * modCounts. These are not guaranteed to detect concurrency
         * violations, and are sometimes overly conservative about
         * within-thread interference, but detect enough problems to
         * be worthwhile in practice. To carry this out, we (1) lazily
         * initialize fence and expectedModCount until the latest
         * point that we need to commit to the state we are checking
         * against; thus improving precision.  (This doesn't apply to
         * SubLists, that create spliterators with current non-lazy
         * values).  (2) We perform only a single
         * ConcurrentModificationException check at the end of forEach
         * (the most performance-sensitive method). When using forEach
         * (as opposed to iterators), we can normally only detect
         * interference after actions, not before. Further
         * CME-triggering checks apply to all other possible
         * violations of assumptions for example null or too-small
         * elementData array given its size(), that could only have
         * occurred due to interference.  This allows the inner loop
         * of forEach to run without any further checks, and
         * simplifies lambda-resolution. While this does entail a
         * number of checks, note that in the common case of
         * list.stream().forEach(a), no checks or other computation
         * occur anywhere other than inside forEach itself.  The other
         * less-often-used methods cannot take advantage of most of
         * these streamlinings.
         */

        private final ArrayList<E> list;
        private int index; // current index, modified on advance/split
        private int fence; // -1 until used; then one past last index
        private int expectedModCount; // initialized when fence set

        /** Create new spliterator covering the given  range */
        ArrayListSpliterator(ArrayList<E> list, int origin, int fence,
                             int expectedModCount) {
            this.list = list; // OK if null unless traversed
            this.index = origin;
            this.fence = fence;
            this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
        }

        private int getFence() { // initialize fence to size on first use
            int hi; // (a specialized variant appears in method forEach)
            ArrayList<E> lst;
            if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
                if ((lst = list) == null)
                    hi = fence = 0;
                else {
                    expectedModCount = lst.modCount;
                    hi = fence = lst.size;
                }
            }
            return hi;
        }

        public ArrayListSpliterator<E> trySplit() {
            int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
            return (lo >= mid) ? null : // divide range in half unless too small
                new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(list, lo, index = mid,
                                            expectedModCount);
        }

        public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super E> action) {
            if (action == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            int hi = getFence(), i = index;
            if (i < hi) {
                index = i + 1;
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E)list.elementData[i];
                action.accept(e);
                if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
            int i, hi, mc; // hoist accesses and checks from loop
            ArrayList<E> lst; Object[] a;
            if (action == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if ((lst = list) != null && (a = lst.elementData) != null) {
                if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
                    mc = lst.modCount;
                    hi = lst.size;
                }
                else
                    mc = expectedModCount;
                if ((i = index) >= 0 && (index = hi) <= a.length) {
                    for (; i < hi; ++i) {
                        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E) a[i];
                        action.accept(e);
                    }
                    if (lst.modCount == mc)
                        return;
                }
            }
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }

        public long estimateSize() {
            return (long) (getFence() - index);
        }

        public int characteristics() {
            return Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED;
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(filter);
        // figure out which elements are to be removed
        // any exception thrown from the filter predicate at this stage
        // will leave the collection unmodified
        int removeCount = 0;
        final BitSet removeSet = new BitSet(size);
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;
        final int size = this.size;
        for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            final E element = (E) elementData[i];
            if (filter.test(element)) {
                removeSet.set(i);
                removeCount++;
            }
        }
        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }

        // shift surviving elements left over the spaces left by removed elements
        final boolean anyToRemove = removeCount > 0;
        if (anyToRemove) {
            final int newSize = size - removeCount;
            for (int i=0, j=0; (i < size) && (j < newSize); i++, j++) {
                i = removeSet.nextClearBit(i);
                elementData[j] = elementData[i];
            }
            for (int k=newSize; k < size; k++) {
                elementData[k] = null;  // Let gc do its work
            }
            this.size = newSize;
            if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
            modCount++;
        }

        return anyToRemove;
    }

    @Override
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public void replaceAll(UnaryOperator<E> operator) {
        Objects.requireNonNull(operator);
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;
        final int size = this.size;
        for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
            elementData[i] = operator.apply((E) elementData[i]);
        }
        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
        modCount++;
    }

    @Override
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
        final int expectedModCount = modCount;
        Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, size, c);
        if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
            throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
        modCount++;
    }
}